Star Date A Bit Younger. Planck Telescope Revises Birth of First Star – The News Ledge

9 February 2015

http://www.newsledge.com/star-date-bit-younger-planck-telescope-revises-birth-first-star-13034

Saw the Orion nebula burst at front yard!

2 January 2014

image

image

With Vixen 10×50
Just wish I have at least my 130P or Mak127 delivering on time for viewing the burst!
Slurping for a Celestron CPC 1100!

Web Service Contract Design & Versioning (Reading Key Points)

30 September 2013

Chapter 3 SOA Fundamentals and WS Contracts

  • Logic-to-Contract Coupling (positive)
  1. high levels of Logic-to-Contract Coupling by ensuring that the WS contract can be designed complete independence from the underlying WS implementation.
  2. other forms of coupling are considered negative as they can shorten the lifespan of a WS contract, thereby leading to increase governance burden as a result of having to manage service contract versions

 

Parallel Universe Proposal

30 April 2011

1.       Quilted Multiverse

Conditions in an infinite universe necessarily repeat across spa, yielding parallel worlds.

2.       Inflationary Multiverse

Eternal cosmological inflation yields an enormous network of bubbles universes, of which our universe would be one.

3.       Brane Multiverse

In string/M-theory’s braneworld scenario, our universe exists on one three-dimensional brane, which floats in a higher-dimensional expanse potentially populated by other branes-other parallel universes.

4.       Cyclic Multiverse

Collisions between braneworlds can manifest as big bang-like beginnings, yielding universes that are parallel in time.

5.       Landscape Multiverse

By combing inflationary cosmology and string theory, the many different shapes for string theory’s extra dimensions give rise to many different bubble universes

6.       Quantum Multivese

Quantum mechanics suggests that every possibility embodied in its probability waves is realized in one of a vast ensemble of parallel universes.

7.       Holographic Multiverse

The holographic principle asserts that our universe is exactly mirrored by phenomena taking place on a distant bounding surface, a physically equivalent parallel universe.

8.       Simulated Multiverse

Technological leaps suggest that simulated universes may one day be possible.

9.       Ultimate Multiverse

The principle of fecundity asserts that every possible universe is a real universe, thereby obviating the question of why one possibility – ours – is special. These universes instantiate all possible mathematical equations.


Security Assertion Markup Language (SAML)

17 June 2010

Following Web services notion of inter-operating between different disparate systems, SAML supported the idea of making disparate security systems inter-operate with each other.

SAML merged the following parallel security efforts into a single technology and was submitted to Organisation for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS):

  1. Security Services Markup Language (S2ML)
  2. Authentication Markup Language (AuthML)

SAML addresses the main problem with cross-domain sharing of security information which are mostly proprietary and required to be tightly coupled with each other.

Main features:

  1. Development of federated systems
  2. Enable seamless integration
  3. Exchange of information among different security systems
  4. Backoffice Transaction
  5. Single-Sign-On (SSO) – user’s ability to authenticate in one security domain and to use the protected resources of another security domain without re-authenticating
  6. XML-based framework for security-related information over Internet

SAML specification consists of the following set of documents:

  1. Assertions and protocol – defines the syntax and semantics for XML-encoded SAML assertions, protocol requests, and protocol responses.
  2. Binding and profiles – defines the frameworks for embedding and transporting SAML assertion requests and responses.
  3. Security and privacy considerations – to provide information to implementers of SAML systems about possible threats, and security risks to which a SAML-based system is subjected.
  4. Conformance program specification – defines a SAML conformance system that isaimed toward achieving compatibility and interoperability among all applications that implement SAML.

SAML Architecture

  1. XML-based frameworks for exchanging security information in the form of an assertion or facts about subjects.
  2. A subject has an identity in some security domain. This subject can be an identified person or it can be some code in which assertion may be required so that the code can be allowed to execute on a system.
  3. A SAML authority or an issuing authority issues the assertions.
  4. The SAML authority can be performed by the following parties:- 3rd party security providers such as Microsoft with Passport- Individual businesses as security provider within Federations such as AMEX, VISA
  5. Three types of core assertions:- authentication assertion- authorisation assertion- attribute assertion
  6. Assertions can be digitally signed using XML Signature as specified by the SAML profile of XML Digital Signature.
  7. Elements of all assertions:– Issuer and Issuance timestamp- Assertion ID– Subject such as name and security domain which the subject belongs to

    – Advice – additional information that the issuing authority may wish to provide to the relying party in regards to how the assertion was made eg. evidence or proof of assertion claims.

    – Conditions – optional element as its validity id dependent upon the evaluation of the conditions provided. Conditions can be as follows:

      + Validity period within which the assertion remain valid after which the assertion would expire
      + Audience restrictions information, which includes relying parties to whom the issuer of this assertion is liable in terms of accuracy or trustworthiness
      + Target restrictions information, which includes targeting relying parties for which the authority has issued this assertion. If consuming party is not the target party then assertion must be rejected.


ESB Features and Benefits

16 June 2010
  1. Web Services Support
    SOAP, WSDL, POX (Plain Old XML) over HTTP
    Design-time tool to create proxy WSDL to a Web service expose by the ESB
    – Supports REST to invoke endpoint URI with XML messages
  2. Adapter
    – Not directly having SOAP or XML interface
    – Adapters to allow integration specifically with different third party applications or systems
  3. Invocation
    – Supports synchronous and asynchronous calls to services or callbacks
  4. Mediation and Protocol Independence
    – Variety of protocols can be reconciled for complex routes across variety of platforms, maintaining loose-coupling between indirectly connected components
    – example SOAP —-> JMS (via HTTP)
    – Allows to plot different protocols on message path besides HTTP and JMS like HTTPS, SMTP, XMPP, FTP etc
    – HL7, EDI… support
  5. Routing
    – Service look-up with registry or repository to perform dynamic routing
    – content-based, rule-based and policy-based routings
    – example of content-based routing, use XPath to select  data from SOAP envelope and on content select new service destination for current message
    – Some ESB provides service-pooling for dynamic routing of messages to another service instance in the pool
  6. Transformation
    – Using XSLT and queried with XQuery and XPath
    – Enhance content of messages to prepare for downstream invocation of other systems
    – Useful for Canonical Data Model
  7. Orchestration
    – To coordinate multiple services to expose them as a single proxy service
    – BPEL or XPDL engine
  8. Security
    – Security policies with policy enforcement points such as SSL and SAML (Security Assertion Markup Language)
  9. Benefits
    – Reduced time to integrate new and existing applications
    – Increased flexibility as system dependencies are reduced. Applications don’t have to know as much about each other, making it easier to change system interfaces or switch them out
    – Simultaneous centralised management of the service catalogue while services are distributed
    – Because of the centralised management capability, buses can collect service metrics in conjunction with Business Activity Monitoring (BAM) in tracking service-level agreements (SLAs) via JMX
    – Use of industry standard interfaces, reducing total cost of ownership
    – Greater agility and responsiveness to change
    – More accurate and up-to-date information via logical centralisation of data management with a single version of the truth
  10. Relevant Integration Patterns
    – Message Bus
    – Content-based Router
    – Pipes and Filters
    – Point-to-Point Channel
    – Normaliser
    – Canonical Data Model

Atom

16 June 2010

The atom is a basic unit of matter consisting of a dense, central nucleus surrounded by a cloud of negatively charged electrons. The atomic nucleus contains a mix of positively charged protons and electrically neutral neutrons (except in the case of hydrogen-1, which is the only stable nuclide with no neutron). The electrons of an atom are bound to the nucleus by the electromagnetic force. Likewise, a group of atoms can remain bound to each other, forming a molecule. An atom containing an equal number of protons and electrons is electrically neutral, otherwise it has a positive or negative charge and is an ion. An atom is classified according to the number of protons and neutrons in its nucleus: the number of protons determines the chemical element, and the number of neutrons determine the isotope of the element.[1]

File:Helium atom QM.svg

An illustration of the helium atom, depicting the nucleus (pink) and the electron cloud distribution (black). The nucleus (upper right) in helium-4 is in reality spherically symmetric and closely resembles the electron cloud, although for more complicated nuclei this is not always the case. The black bar is one ångström, equal to 10−10 m or 100,000 fm.

Classification
Smallest recognized division of a chemical element
Properties
Mass range: 1.67 × 10−27 to 4.52 × 10−25 kg
Electric charge: zero (neutral), or ion charge
Diameter range: 62 pm (He) to 520 pm (Cs) (data page)
Components: Electrons and a compact nucleus of protons and neutrons

CERN LHC Proton Beam Collision Official Press Release

31 March 2010

LHC research programme gets underway

Geneva, 30 March 2010. Beams collided at 7 TeV in the LHC at 13:06 CEST, marking the start of the LHC research programme. Particle physicists around the world are looking forward to a potentially rich harvest of new physics as the LHC begins its first long run at an energy three and a half times higher than previously achieved at a particle accelerator.

“It’s a great day to be a particle physicist,” said CERN1 Director General Rolf Heuer. “A lot of people have waited a long time for this moment, but their patience and dedication is starting to pay dividends.”

“With these record-shattering collision energies, the LHC experiments are propelled into a vast region to explore, and the hunt begins for dark matter, new forces, new dimensions and the Higgs boson,” said ATLAS collaboration spokesperson, Fabiola Gianotti. “The fact that the experiments have published papers already on the basis of last year’s data bodes very well for this first physics run.”

“We’ve all been impressed with the way the LHC has performed so far,” said Guido Tonelli, spokesperson of the CMS experiment, “and it’s particularly gratifying to see how well our particle detectors are working while our physics teams worldwide are already analysing data. We’ll address soon some of the major puzzles of modern physics like the origin of mass, the grand unification of forces and the presence of abundant dark matter in the universe. I expect very exciting times in front of us.”

“This is the moment we have been waiting and preparing for”, said ALICE spokesperson Jürgen Schukraft. “We’re very much looking forward to the results from proton collisions, and later this year from lead-ion collisions, to give us new insights into the nature of the strong interaction and the evolution of matter in the early Universe.”

“LHCb is ready for physics,” said the experiment’s spokesperson Andrei Golutvin, “we have a great research programme ahead of us exploring the nature of matter-antimatter asymmetry more profoundly than has ever been done before.”

CERN will run the LHC for 18-24 months with the objective of delivering enough data to the experiments to make significant advances across a wide range of physics channels. As soon as they have “re-discovered” the known Standard Model particles, a necessary precursor to looking for new physics, the LHC experiments will start the systematic search for the Higgs boson. With the amount of data expected, called one inverse femtobarn by physicists, the combined analysis of ATLAS and CMS will be able to explore a wide mass range, and there’s even a chance of discovery if the Higgs has a mass near 160 GeV. If it’s much lighter or very heavy, it will be harder to find in this first LHC run.

For supersymmetry, ATLAS and CMS will each have enough data to double today’s sensitivity to certain new discoveries. Experiments today are sensitive to some supersymmetric particles with masses up to 400 GeV. An inverse femtobarn at the LHC pushes the discovery range up to 800 GeV.

“The LHC has a real chance over the next two years of discovering supersymmetric particles,” explained Heuer, “and possibly giving insights into the composition of about a quarter of the Universe.”

Even at the more exotic end of the LHC’s potential discovery spectrum, this LHC run will extend the current reach by a factor of two. LHC experiments will be sensitive to new massive particles indicating the presence of extra dimensions up to masses of 2 TeV, where today’s reach is around 1 TeV.

“Over 2000 graduate students are eagerly awaiting data from the LHC experiments,” said Heuer. “They’re a privileged bunch, set to produce the first theses at the new high-energy frontier.”

Following this run, the LHC will shutdown for routine maintenance, and to complete the repairs and consolidation work needed to reach the LHC’s design energy of 14 TeV following the incident of 19 September 2008. Traditionally, CERN has operated its accelerators on an annual cycle, running for seven to eight months with a four to five month shutdown each year. Being a cryogenic machine operating at very low temperature, the LHC takes about a month to bring up to room temperature and another month to cool down. A four-month shutdown as part of an annual cycle no longer makes sense for such a machine, so CERN has decided to move to a longer cycle with longer periods of operation accompanied by longer shutdown periods when needed.

“Two years of continuous running is a tall order both for the LHC operators and the experiments, but it will be well worth the effort,” said Heuer. “By starting with a long run and concentrating preparations for 14 TeV collisions into a single shutdown, we’re increasing the overall running time over the next three years, making up for lost time and giving the experiments the chance to make their mark.”

CERN LHC 7TeV Proton Beam Collided!

31 March 2010

CERN LHC has just successfully collided proton beams at 7TeV! Anxious to know what data they have gathered and answer to early Universe and the Big Bang Theory!

SOA – Agile Approach

30 March 2010

The agile strategy

The challenge remains to find an acceptable balance between incorporating service-oriented design principles into business analysis environments without having to wait before integrating Web services technologies into technical environments. For many organizations it is therefore useful to view these two approaches as extremes and to find a suitable middle ground.

This is possible by defining a new process that allows for the business-level analysis to occur concurrently with service design and development. Also known as the meet-in-the-middle approach, the agile strategy is more complex than the previous two simply because it needs to fulfill two opposing sets of requirements.

Process

The process steps shown in figure below demonstrate an example of how an agile strategy can be used to reach the respective goals of the top-down and bottom-up approaches.

Figure A sample agile strategy process.

Step 1: Begin the top-down analysis, focusing first on key parts of the ontology and related business entities

The standard top-down analysis begins but with a narrower focus. The parts of the business models directly related to the business logic being automated receive immediate priority.

Step 2: When the top-down analysis has sufficiently progressed, perform service-oriented analysis

While Step 1 is still in progress, this step initiates a service-oriented analysis phase. Depending on the magnitude of analysis required to complete Step 1, it is advisable to give that step a good head start. The further along it progresses, the more service designs will benefit.

After the top-down analysis has sufficiently progressed, model business services to best represent the business model with whatever analysis results are available. This is a key decision point in this process. It may require an educated judgment call to determine whether the on-going top-down analysis is sufficiently mature to proceed with the creation of business service models. This consideration must then be weighed against the importance and urgency of pending project requirements.

Step 3: Perform service-oriented design

The chosen service layers are defined, and individual services are designed as part of a service-oriented design process.

Steps 4, 5, and 6: Develop, test, and deploy the services

Develop the services and submit them to the standard testing and deployment procedures.

Step 7: As the top-down analysis continues to progress, revisit business services

Perform periodic reviews of all business services to compare their design against the current state of the business models. Make a note of discrepancies and schedule a redesign for those services most out of alignment. This typically will require an extension to an existing service for it to better provide the full range of required capabilities. When redesigned, a service will need to again undergo standard development, testing, and deployment steps.

To preserve the integrity of services produced by this approach, the concept of immutable service contracts needs to be strictly enforced. After a contract is published, it cannot be altered. Unless revisions to services result in extensions that impose no restrictions on an existing contract (such as the addition of new operations to a WSDL definition), Step 7 of this process likely will result in the need to publish new contract versions and the requirement for a version management system.

Pros and cons

This strategy takes the best of both worlds (Top-down and Bottom-up) and combines it into an approach for realizing SOA that meets immediate requirements without jeopardizing the integrity of an organization’s business model and the service-oriented qualities of the architecture.

While it fulfills both short and long-term needs, the net result of employing this strategy is increased effort associated with the delivery of every service. The fact that services may need to be revisited, redesigned, redeveloped, and redeployed will add up proportionally to the amount of services subjected to this re-tasking step.

Additionally, this approach imposes maintenance tasks that are required to ensure that existing services are actually kept in alignment with revised business models. Even with a maintenance process in place, services still run the risk of misalignment with a constantly changing business model.